General References

Benefits of Mindfulness

Improves attentional stability, control and efficiency

·      The mind wanders roughly half of the time and mindfulness can stabilize attention in the present (Killingworth & Gilbert, 2010; Smallwood & Schooler, 2015)

·      Studies have found that mindfulness reduces distraction even when distractions are emotional in nature (Allen, et al., 2012)

Improves cognition capacity and flexibility

·      Mindfulness has been associated with working memory capacity (Roeser, et al., 2013)

·      Linked to creativity and divergent and convergent thinking (Colzato, Ozturk, & Hommel, 2012)

·      Better insight problem solving (Ding et al. 2015; Ocstafin & Kassan, 2012).

Enhances Emotion Regulation

·      Shortens the peak to baseline cycle of emotional response (Goldin & Gross, 2010)

·      Reduced negative reaction to stressors (Arch & Craske, 2010)

·      Promotes objectivity and non-judgment reaction (Hulsheger, et al., 2014).

·      Promotes an overall positive emotion view of the day to day activities (Eberth & Sedlmeir, 2012)

Promotes Self-regulation of behavior

·      Reduces unproductive automatic behavior by fostering an awareness of habitual behaviors such as eating, smoking, drinking, etc. (Papies, Pronk, Keesman & Barsalou, 2014; Westbrook et al., 2013)

Physical Health

·      Dampens the reaction and recovery from stress (Brown, et al., 2012; Creswell & Lindsay, 2014)

·      Improves sleep quality (Hulsheger, et al., 2014).

·      Preliminary evidence suggests that mindfulness may slow or stall the age-related brain degeneration (Davidson, et al., 2003; Gard, et al., 2014; Luders, Cherbuin & Kurth, 2015; Schutte & Malouff, 2014).)


Benefits of Mindfulness Detailed References

Allen, M., Dietz, M., Blair, K. S., van Beek, M., Rees, G., Vestergaard-Poulsen, P., Lutz, A., & Roepstorff, A. (2012).  Cognitive-affective neural plasticity following active-controlled mindfulness intervention. The Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 15601-15610.


Allen, T. D., & Kiburz, K. M. (2012). Trait mindfulness and work-family balance among working parents: The mediating effects of vitality and sleep quality. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80: 372-379.


Arch, J. J., & Craske, M. G. (2010). Laboratory stressors in clinically anxious and non-anxious individuals: The moderating role of mindfulness. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48, 495-505.


Beach, M. C., Roter, D., Korthuis, P. T., Epstein, R. M., Sharp, V., Ratanawongsa, N., Cohn, J., Eggly, S., Sankar, A., Moore, R. D., & Saha, S. (2013). A multicenter study of physician mindfulness and health care quality. The Annals of Family Medicine, 11: 421-428


Beckman, H. B., Wendland, M., Mooney, C., Krasner, M. S., Quill, T. E., Suchman, A. L., & Epstein, R. M. (2012). The impact of a program in mindful communication on primary care physicians. Academic Medicine, 87: 815-819.


Brown, K. W., Weinstein, N., & Creswell, J. D. (2012).  Trait mindfulness modulates neuroendocrine and affective responses to social evaluative threat. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37, 2037-2041.


Cleirigh, D. O., & Greaney, J. (2014). Mindfulness and group performance: An exploratory investigation into the effects of brief mindfulness intervention on group task performance. Mindfulness, 6, 601-609.


Colzato, L. S., Ozturk, A., & Hommel, B. (2012). Meditate to create: The impact of focused-attention and open- monitoring training on convergent and divergent thinking. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 116.


Creswell, J. D., & Lindsay, E. K. (2014). How does mindfulness training affect health? A mindfulness stress buffering account. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23, 401-407.


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Ding, X., Tang, Y.-Y., Cao, C., Deng, Y., Wang, Y., Xin, X., & Posner, M. I. (2015). Short-term meditation modulates brain activity of insight evoked with solution cue. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 10, 43-46.


Eberth, J., & Sedlmeier, P. (2012). The effects of mindfulness meditation: A meta-analysis. Mindfulness, 3, 174-189.


Flook, L., Goldberg, S. B., Pinger, L., Bonus, K., & Davidson, R. J. 2013. Mindfulness for teachers: A pilot study to assess effects on stress, burnout, and teaching efficacy. Mind, Brain, and Education, 7: 182-195.


Gard, T., Taquet, M., Dixit, R., Hölzel, B. K., de Montjoye, Y.-A., Brach, N., Salat, D. H., Dickerson, B. C., Gray, J. R., & Lazar, S. W. (2014). Fluid intelligence and brain functional organization in aging yoga and meditation practitioners. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 6, 76.


Goldin, P. R., & Gross, J. J. (2010). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder. Emotion, 10, 83-91.


Hülsheger, U. R., Lang, J. W. B., Depenbrock, F., Fehrmann, C., Zijlstra, F. R. H., & Alberts, H. J. E. M. (2014). The power of presence: The role of mindfulness at work for daily levels and change trajectories of psychological detachment and sleep quality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99, 1113-1128.


Krasner, M. S., Epstein, R. M., Beckman, H., Suchman, A. L., Chapman, B., Mooney, C. J., & Quill, T. E. (2009). Association of an educational program in mindful communication with burnout, empathy, and attitudes among primary care physicians. Journal of the American Medical Association, 302: 1284-1293.


Leroy, H., Anseel, F., Dimitrova, N. G., & Sels, L. (2013). Mindfulness, authentic functioning, and work engagement: A growth modeling approach. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 82: 238-247.


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Levesque, C., & Brown, K. W. (2007). Mindfulness as a moderator of the effect of implicit motivational self-concept on day-to-day behavioral motivation. Motivation and Emotion, 31, 284-299.


Luders, E., Cherbuin, N., & Kurth, F. (2015). Forever young(er): Potential age-defying effects of long-term meditation on gray matter atrophy. Frontiers in Psychology, 5: 1551.


Malinowski, P., & Lim, H. J. (2015). Mindfulness at work: Positive affect, hope, and optimism mediate the relationship between dispositional mindfulness, work engagement, and well-being. Mindfulness, 1-13.


Metiu, A., & Rothbard, N. P. (2012). Task bubbles, artifacts, shared emotion, and mutual focus of attention: A comparative study of the microprocesses of group engagement. Organization Science, 24: 455-475.


Killingsworth, M. A., & Gilbert, D. T. (2010). A wandering mind is an unhappy mind. Science, 330: 932.


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Ostafin, B. D., & Kassman, K. T. (2012). Stepping out of history: Mindfulness improves insight problem solving. Consciousness and Cognition, 21, 1031-1036.


Papies, E. K., Pronk, T. M., Keesman, M., & Barsalou, L. W. (2014). The benefits of simply observing: Mindful attention modulates the link between motivation and behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 108: 148-170.


Reb, J., Narayanan, J., & Chaturvedi, S. (2014). Leading mindfully: Two studies on the influence of supervisor trait mindfulness on employee well-being and performance. Mindfulness, 5, 36-45


Roeser, R. W., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., Jha, A., Cullen, M., Wallace, L., Wilensky, R., Oberle, E., Thomson, K., Taylor, C., & Harrison, J. (2013). Mindfulness training and reductions in teacher stress and burnout: Results from two randomized, waitlist-control field trials. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105: 787-804.


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Smallwood, J., & Schooler, J. W. (2015). The science of mind wandering: Empirically navigating the stream of consciousness. Annual Review of Psychology, 66: 487-518.


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Vago, D. R., & Silbersweig, D. A. (2012). Self-awareness, self-regulation, and self-transcendence (S-ART): A framework for understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6: 296.


Westbrook, J. I., Woods, A., Rob, M. I., Dunsmuir, W. M., & Day, R. O. (2010). Association of interruptions with an increased risk and severity of medication administration errors. Archives of Internal Medicine, 170: 683-690.

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